reflex adj : without volition or conscious control; "the automatic shrinking of the pupils of the eye in strong light"; "a reflex knee jerk"; "sneezing is reflexive" [syn: automatic, reflex(a), reflexive] n : an automatic instinctive unlearned reaction to a stimulus [syn: instinctive reflex, innate reflex, inborn reflex, unconditioned reflex, physiological reaction]
A reflex action is involuntary and almost instant movement in response to stimulus. In most contexts, especially involving humans, a reflex action is mediated via the reflex arc (although this is not always true in other animals, or in more casual usage of the term 'reflex'.)
Reflexes are tested as part of a neurological examination to assess damage to or functioning of the central and peripheral nervous system.
Reflexes may be trained, such as during repetition of motor actions during sport practice, or the linking of stimuli with autonomic reactions during classical conditioning.
Reaction timeFor a reflex, reaction time or latency is the time from the onset of a stimulus until the organism responds.
Human reflexesReflex actions include:
Tendon reflexesThe deep tendon reflexes provide information on the integrity of the central and peripheral nervous system. Generally, decreased reflexes indicate a peripheral problem, and lively or exaggerated reflexes a central one.
While the reflexes above are stimulated mechanically, the term H-reflex refers to the analogous reflex stimulated electrically, and Tonic vibration reflex for those stimulated by vibration.
Reflexes involving cranial nerves
Reflexes in infants onlyNewborn babies have a number of other reflexes which are not seen in adults, referred to as primitive reflexes. These include:
Other reflexesOther reflexes found in the human nervous system include:
Processes such as breathing, digestion, and the maintenance of the heartbeat can also be regarded as reflex actions, according to some definitions of the term.
reflex in Catalan: Reacció reflexa
reflex in Czech: Reflex
reflex in Danish: Refleks
reflex in German: Reflex
reflex in Estonian: Refleks
reflex in Spanish: Reflejo
reflex in Esperanto: Reflekso
reflex in French: Réflexe (réaction motrice)
reflex in Galician: Reacción reflexa
reflex in Hebrew: רפלקס
reflex in Italian: Riflesso
reflex in Lithuanian: Refleksas
reflex in Dutch: Reflex (biologie)
reflex in Japanese: 反射 (生物学)
reflex in Norwegian: Refleks
reflex in Polish: Odruch
reflex in Portuguese: Reflexo
reflex in Romanian: Reflex
reflex in Russian: Рефлекс (биология)
reflex in Slovak: Reflex
reflex in Finnish: Refleksi
reflex in Swedish: Reflex (medicinsk term)
reflex in Turkish: Refleks
reflex in Chinese: 反射 (生理学)
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